Principales propositions issues de la recherche

Boukharaeva L., Marloie M. L’utilisation des sols urbains et péri urbains pour le développement humain durable des villes.

Rapport de recherche pour le programme GESSOL 3 du Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement Durable, des Transport et du Logement.

Avril 2013. FMSH, Paris, 194 p.


Le rapport dans son intégralité.../images/news/images/document/C2.pdf

La synthèse du rapport.../images/news/images/document/C3.pdf


SUMMARY in english

The report presents the results of the research program entitled “The use of urban and suburban soils for sustainable development of cities”. This program follows upon a project submitted by Louiza Boukharaeva and Marcel Marloie further to the call for proposals GESSOL 3 “Soils and sustainable development” of 25/09/2008. It was the object of an agreement signed in September, 2009 by the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (MEEDDM) and the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme (FMSH).

 The research aims to develop proposals for use of urban and suburban soils in order to be more sustainable on the social and environmental plan than currently dominant practices in France, particularly the suburban model.

It bears centrally on the study of collective urban gardening of Russia and France, and to a lesser extent in other countries of the European Union and Brazil. This sector of activity is approached from the theory of urban agriculture. It is historically contextualized and put in touch with the problems of unequal access to urban soils and nature, the environment, poverty and urban violence. It is processed in order to estimate its size and its functions. The Russian example serves as a mirror to read French and West European reality. It encourages reflection on the limitations of the current injunction: "build the city on the city", which aims to fight against the urban sprawl, but may increase the problems of inequality, poverty and urban violence.

Research in Russia show that the sector affects between half and two-thirds of the citizens and fills multiple functions: food, holiday resort, extension of the urban habitat, fender crisis and strengthening social resilience. This is not a legacy of the rural past or a singularity of the Soviet regime, condemned to disappear with it, but a social conquest and the invention of a specific model of the relationship between citizen and nature.

With regard to this phenomenon, France appears marked by profound inequalities in the access to urban soils and nature. The collectives of family gardens stemming from workers allotment gardens are small, disadvantaged by insecurity in land use, by a symbolic treatment of the margin of poverty, and the prohibition to evolve towards shelter houses where it would be possible to stay on weekends and holidays.

The shared gardens, of insertion, educational, therapeutic, and the new generation of family gardens are an open-air laboratory where invent new models that will reach their full meaning only by a change of scale. From the point of view of the objectives of GESSOL program, it is an alternative to suburban model that would have the double advantage of helping to stop the destructive soil sprawl and promote a garden activity who, properly driving, improves their fertility.

So we are in a period where public policy should see far and wide. It is not a question of copying what is made somewhere else but invent from the open-air laboratory and of the foreign references. The research brings elements showing that it is possible to change the quantitative scale to convert agricultural land to urban gardening. It identifies information and provide guidance for further institutionalization of this sector in overcoming blind spots of the statistical device, creating a new status of soils and potential gardeners, encouraging structuring actors and new solidarity between urban and rural, changing economic calculations to take into account non-market services (particularly in terms of health economics and recreation ) to assess the potential importance of this sector of activity in the national economy.

Keywords : Urban Agriculture - Brazil - Urban Challenge - France - Gardens - Multifunctional – Russia


Le programme GESSOL du Ministere de l'Ecologie, du Developpement Durable, des Transports et du Logement

 En réponse à la pression croissante exercée par l’homme sur les sols, le ministère en charge de l'écologie initie en 1998 le programme de recherche GESSOL "Fonctions environnementales et GEStion du patrimoine SOL". Ce programme a ainsi pour objectif de structurer une communauté de recherche sur la gestion des sols, de fournir aux décideurs publics et aux usagers des sols des connaissances et des outils opérationnels pour évaluer, surveiller, gérer, voire améliorer la qualité des sols, qu'ils soient naturels, agricoles ou urbains.

Ce programme GESSOL  a participé au financement de 46 projets de recherche.

Ouvrage de synthèse aux Editions Quae  Chapitre sur "Sols et citadins"